Global prevalence of intestinal protozoan contamination in vegetables and fruits: A systematic review and meta-analysis

Badri, Milad and Olfatifar, Meysam and karim, md robiul and Modirian, Ehsan and Houshmand, Elham and Abdoli, Amir and Nikoonejad, Alireza and Sotoodeh, Simin and Zargar, Ali and Samimi, Rasoul and Hashemipour, Sima and Mahmoudi, Razzagh and fasihi harandi, majid and Hajialilo, Elham and Piri, Hossein and Bijani, Behzad and Vafae Eslah, Aida (2021) Global prevalence of intestinal protozoan contamination in vegetables and fruits: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Food Control.

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A B S T R A C T Environmental contamination of vegetables and fruits with intestinal protozoan trophozoites, cysts and oocysts is a means of transmitting parasitic agents of public health importance. The purpose of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to determine the global prevalence of intestinal protozoan parasite contamination in vege- tables and fruits. Several databases (Web of Science, PubMed, Scopus, ProQuest and Google Scholar) were searched for literature published up to August 2021. Pooled prevalence was determined using the meta-package in R (version 3.6.1). Out of 90,404 publications, 189 articles (202 datasets) met the inclusion criteria. Among these, 183 investigations documented protozoan contamination in vegetables and 20 in fruits. The pooled prevalence (95% confidence interval) was 20% (16%–24%) for vegetables and 13% (7%–21%) for fruits. The highest pooled prevalence was found in South-East Asian WHO region 37% (6%–76%). The most prevalent protozoan parasite in vegetables was Cryptosporidium spp. (11%, 7%–15%). As well, Entamoeba histolytica was the most common agent found in fruits (9%, 4%–14%). Furthermore, the unwashed samples had the highest pooled prevalence of contamination (22%, 3%–49%). Our data suggest a possible risk of protozoan infection in humans via unwashed vegetables and fruits. Accidental ingestion of protozoa occurs through consumption of contami- nated vegetables and fruits that have been improperly washed and prepared under poor sanitation. Using san- itary irrigation water, consuming properly cleaned and cooked vegetables, and practicing good hygiene can all assist to reduce the risk of protozoa infection Keywords: Vegetables Fruits, Protozoan contamination, Public health, Food-borne, diseases

Item Type: Article
Subjects: R Medicine > RQ Parasitology
Divisions: University Portal > research center > Metabolic
Depositing User: pr Metabolic diseases research
Date Deposited: 29 Oct 2022 08:53
Last Modified: 29 Oct 2022 08:53
URI: http://eprints.qums.ac.ir/id/eprint/11270

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